Up: MacAnova Help File
There are three released versions of MacAnova for IBM compatible
computers. Two are designed to run under the MSDOS operating system
and, although they can be launched from Windows, do not use Windows
features. The third is designed to run under Windows and Windows 95 and
incorporates many of the familiar multi-window features present in the
Macintosh version. All have the full range of MacAnova commands.
This help topic first describes features or limitations specific to each
version and then describes things they have in common that are specific
to Windows/DOS computers.
Limited Memory version (BCPP)
The limited memory DOS version is compiled using Borland C++ 4.5. It
runs on almost any PC compatible (80286, 80386, 80486, Pentium) with
sufficient memory and a hard disk. It does not use extended memory and
the size of individual variables is limited to about 65000 bytes (8125
The executable file is usually named MACANOBC.EXE.
The limited memory version can draw high resolution plots on a variety
of graphics modes (CGA, EGA, VGA, 8514 and Hercules). Keyword
'screendump' is not available on plotting commands, and hence there is
no easy way to save high resolution graphs. However, when you launch it
from Windows, Alt PrintScreen copies the high resolution screen to the
clip board from which it can be pasted into a Word Perfect or other
It has no command editing or "history" using arrow keys.
You can execute DOS commands by prefixing the line with '!' in the first
position after the prompt or by using the command shell(). However,
memory limitations restrict what you can actually do. shell(cmd,keep:T)
is not implemented and shell(cmd,interact:F) is the same as shell(cmd,
interact:T). See shell().
Extended Memory Version (DJGPP)
The extended memory DOS version is compiled using a version of Gnu gcc
developed by D. J. Delorie. Because it runs in protected mode it
requires a 80386 or better processor. Because it can access all
available memory and in fact uses "virtual memory" on the hard disk if
necessary, the size of variables is limited only by hardware
The executable file is usually named MACANODJ.EXE.
The extended memory version works with a variety of graphic displays,
including VGA. Keyword phrase screendump:fileName on plotting commands
allows you to create PCX files which can be edited under Windows and
included in word processor documents.
It has command editing implemented using the arrow keys and editor
commands based on either the Emacs or Vi editor commands (Emacs and Vi
are Unix/Linux editors). See topic 'unix' for details. The only
difference from the Unix/Linux version is that the special file for
customizing keymaps must be "INPUTRC" (not ".inputrc") in the same
directory as MACANODJ.EXE.
You can use shell() and command lines starting with '!' as for the
limited memory version, but without the memory limitations.
shell(cmd,keep:T) returns output from the program executed. You must
use shell(cmd,interact:T) if the program executed requires any input.
When in doubt, use interact:T. This feature appears to work somewhat
differently under Windows 95 as it does when running under Windows 3.1.
Macro edit() (see topic edit()) is predefined in the extended memory
version to allow easy editing of macros and data without exiting
Macanova. By default it uses the DOS program Edit but this can be
changed by setting CHARACTER variable EDITOR to the path name of a
Windows Version (WXBCPP)
This version is compiled under Borland C++ 5.02 using version 1.68 of
the WxWin windowing library (see topic 'copyright'). It allows multiple
command/output windows and high resolution graphics windows with Copy,
Paste and Undo capability. It requires a 32 bit Windows system such as
Windows 3.1 with Win32S, Windows 95 or Windows NT. Commands are typed
immediately after the prompt in a scrollable command/output window. If
you are running Windows 3.1, you will need to install Win32S. This is
available free from Microsoft. See file win32s.doc distributed with
MacAnova for details. Win32S is not needed for Windows 95 or Windows
The executable file is usually named MACANOWX.EXE.
The Windows version has File, Edit and Windows menus which are patterned
after the Macintosh version but do not include all items. Item New on
the Windows menu allows you to open a new command/output window (up to a
maximum of 8). You can save a command/output window to disk (Save or
Save As on the File menu) or read a file, perhaps output saved on a
previous run, into a new window (Open on the File menu). The Windows
clipboard is "connected" to special CHARACTER variable CLIPBOARD. See
There is no intrinsic limitation on the size of variables, since virtual
memory is used as needed.
You can draw graphs in up to eight graphics windows, each of which can
be printed or Copied to the clipboard. The are no panel of graph
windows as on the Macintosh.
Editing of commands is done with the mouse and keyboard in a
shell(command,interact:F) and shell(command,keep:T) do not work under
Windows 3.1 and Windows 95. It is possible that they work under Windows
NT, but that has not been tested. shell(command,interact:T) and lines
prefixed with '!' appear to behave somewhat differently, depending on
the operating system. Problems remain to be worked out. See shell().
See topic 'wx' for more information.
Features Common to All Windows and DOS Versions
MacAnova recognizes '/' in file names (for instance, c:/mv/macanova.dat
instead of c:\mv\macanova.dat). This is desirable, since to use '\' in
a quoted string it must be doubled ("c:\\mv\\macanova.dat"). See
Various command line arguments are recognized, allowing automatic
restoring of a workspace, suppressing the banner, changing default file
names, etc. On the Windows version, they allow initializing the
command/output window with the contents of a file. See topic
MacAnova uses any default options or file or path names in environmental
variable MACANOVA. See topic 'customize'.
The startup file is MACANOVA.INI in the same directory as the executable
files, MACANOBC.EXE, MACANODJ.EXE or MACANOWX.EXE which can co-exist.
See topic 'customize'.
Unless you use command line option -home (see 'launching') or include
-home in environmental variable MACANOVA (see 'customize'), MacAnova
pre-defines CHARACTER variable HOME to contain the name of the Macanova
directory, that is the directory where MACANOBC.EXE, MACANODJ.EXE,
and/or MACANOWX.EXE is located. HOME is used by to expand file names of
the form "~/path" or "~\\path" by substituting the value of HOME for
'~'. This allows you to refer to files such as MACANOVA.INI as
"~/macanova.ini", even if you have changed directories. If you redefine
HOME, it changes the expansion of "~/" and "~\\". See topic 'files'.
Pre-defined variables DATAPATHS and DATAPATH are initialized with path
names derived from the MacAnova directory path name unless options
-dpath or -mpath are set on the command line (see topic 'launching') or
environmental variable MACANOVA (see topics 'DATAPATHS' and