You enter numbers as integers with or without out a decimal point, as decimal numbers, or using exponential notation (X.XXeY or X.XXEY is XX.X * 10^Y). Cmd> a <- 65535 # same as a <- 65535. or a <- 65535.0000 Cmd> a <- -3141.592654; b <- .0000415; c <- 1000000 Cmd> a <- -3.141592654e3; b <- 4.15E-5; c <- 1e6# same as preceding For greater readability of long numbers, you can use '_' to separate digits in the mantissa (the entire number without 'e' or 'E' or the part before 'e' or 'E'). Cmd> a <- -3_141.592_654e4 # same as a <- -3141.592654e4 Warning: _3_141, for example, is a legal variable name, not a number. Fortran style double precision numbers like -3.14592654d3 and 4.15D-5 are read as if the 'd' or 'D' were 'e' (except by read() and matread()). It is an error to attempt to enter a number that is too large to be represented in the computer. For example, Cmd> d <- 3.1e5000 is an error. On most computers the largest numbers are about +-2^1024 = +-1.79769e+308 and the smallest nonzero numbers are about +-2^(-1024) = 5.56268e-309. You enter MISSING values using the symbol '?'. Cmd> e <- vector(1,2,3,?,4,5,?) # vector with 2 MISSING values. Other representations for MISSING such as '*', 'NA' and '.' which are recognized by vecread() are not recognized in MacAnova commands. By default, most numeric output is printed using a hybrid between integer, decimal and exponential format. MISSING values are normally printed as 'MISSING'. Cmd> vector(100*PI, 1e6*PI, PI/100, PI/1e6) (1) 314.16 3.1416e+06 0.031416 3.1416e-06 Cmd> vector(34, ?) (1) 34 MISSING You can change these defaults by setoptions() keywords 'format' and 'missing'. Here is an example: Cmd> setoptions(missing:"NA", format:"12.4f") Cmd> vector(100*PI, 1e6*PI, PI/100, PI/1e6) (1) 314.1593 3141592.6536 0.0314 0.0000 Cmd> vector(34, ?) (1) 34.0000 NA See topics setoptions(), 'options', print(). See also topic 'syntax'.

Gary Oehlert 2003-01-15